95. 1 Peter chapter 2

Just thought I would share some thoughts in outline form that I have enjoyed in relation to 1 Peter 2.
  1. High-level breakdown of the chapter; Similarities/parallels with the Ephesian epistle
    1. 1Peter 2:1-10 / Eph. ch 1-3 – our Calling
      1. Eph. 1:4 chosen (1Pet 2:9)
      2. Eph. 2:1-9 former life, grace of God (1Pet 2:1)
      1. Eph. 2:20-22 building & corner stone (1Pet 2:6)
      1. Eph. 3:8 opportunity to proclaim the glorious gospel (1Pet 2:9)
    1. 1Peter 2:11-25 / Eph. ch 4-6 – our Conduct
      1. Eph. 4:1, 4:17-5:21 walk worthy of calling
      2. Eph. 5:22-6:9 instructions to individuals
  1. Who we are
    1. 1Pet 2:1-3) Babes who need to Feed on the Word
      1. Growing in respect to salvation
    1. 1Pet 2:4-10) (Stones in a) Building that has been Founded on the Corner Stone
      1. Growing / being built up in respect to a spiritual house
    1. 1Pet 2:11-24) Strangers and Pilgrims who are Following Christ
    2. 1Pet 2:25) Sheep that have been Found by the Shepherd
  1. Contrasts & our Calling
    1. 1Pet 2:1-3) the Purity of the milk in contrast to the vileness of the flesh
      1. Growth in keeping with our calling
    1. 1Pet 2:4-10) the Preciousness of the Stone in contrast to the estimation of the unbelieving
      1. Position in keeping with our calling
    1. 1Pet 2:11-20) the Pathway of the pilgrim in contrast to the ways of the world
      1. Conduct in keeping with our calling
    1. 1Pet 2:21-23) Patience in suffering in contrast to the reviling of men
      1. Suffering that is in keeping with our calling & the example of Christ for how we should respond
    1. 1Pet 2:24-25) Pleasing God in the fold in contrast to straying from Shepherd
      1. Security that is in keeping with our calling
  1. Activities as God’s chosen people
    1. 1Pet 2:1-3)    We are Tasting and Feeding (Word and kindness of God)
    2. 1Pet 2:4-10)  We are Offering (as holy priests) and Proclaiming (as royal priests)
    3. 1Pet 2:11-20) We are Obeying
    4. 1Pet 2:21-23) We are Imitating
    5. 1Pet 2:24-25) We are Abiding near the shepherd
  1. Desires
    1. 1Pet 2:1-3) Word
    2. 1Pet 2:4-10) Christ
    3. 1Pet 2:11-25) Righteousness

71. Feasts Foretelling

The Remarkable Symbolism of the Feasts of the LORD

Colossians 2:16-17 tells us that truths in the Old Testament are shadows of things to come.

The feasts (or festivals) of the Old Testament are God letting us in on His purposes and plans– sharing with us what He has enjoyed from eternity past (2). So what can we learn at God’s table?

Leviticus 23 and Deuteronomy 16 tell us about these festive days for God’s earthly people, Israel. Leviticus 23 begins by telling us about the Sabbath, a day of rest. Figuratively, this rest was broken when sin entered the world, and it will not be fully enjoyed again until the eternal rest after the Millenium. (2)

A note on Jewish time: The Jewish “day” begins in the evening instead of in the morning. Thus, the Jewish Sabbath begins on Friday night and ends with the appearance of the stars on Saturday night. (1)

One-day feasts indicate single, great acts of Jehovah. Those that lasted over a period of time point to the results and blessings because of those acts. (2)

Practical note: God promised the Israelites’ lands would be safe when they went to the feasts. We won’t lose out by obeying God’s command to assemble with His people, but we will surely be worse off if we refuse to do this. (2)

Feasts 1-4 : Foretold events now Past

1) The Passover

Looks forward to: Redemption; Christ our Redeemer
Related passages: Exodus 12; Luke 22:14-20; 1 Corinthians 5:7

Old Testament significance:

  • Time observed: 1st month, 15th day of the month, about 6:00 p.m. (The lamb was killed the end of the 14th day.)
  • A lamb gave its life to deliver the firstborn from death
  • Result: Redemption from slavery in Egypt
    • Stress on remembering (Exod. 13:3)

New Testament significance:

  • Time of crucifixion: probably 1st month, 15th day of month
  • The Lord Jesus, the Lamb of God, gave His life to deliver sinners from eternal death and separation from God
    • “Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us” (1 Cor. 5:7)
  • Result: Redemption from slavery to sin in the world
    • Stress on remembering (Luke 22:19)

In Luke 22:14-20 the Lord Jesus shows that the Passover supper was only a shadow that looked forward to the Lord’s supper. He is the true Passover Lamb.

  • At the institution of the Law, Moses sprinkled the people with blood to indicate their identification with the covenant (Ex 24:8)
  • At the institution of the Lord’s supper, Christ said “drink… this is [e.g. represents] my blood” (Matt 26:27-28).

Suggestion for personal study: The Lamb and Redemption

2) Feast of Unleavened bread

Looks forward to: Righteousness, Communion; Christ our Sanctification
Related passages: 1Corinthians 5:6-8

Old Testament significance:

  • Time observed: 1st month, 15th – 21st day
  • Time of remembering that they went out of Egypt in haste, feeding on unleavened bread

New Testament significance:

  • Time: Shows the results of Christ’s work in the believer’s life after salvation. Note that it is a week long feast rather than just one day.
  • Leaven represents evil in the Bible
  • Before this O.T. feast (and the Passover supper), there was a thorough search for leaven. We as Christians should be careful to judge ourselves before partaking of the Lord’s supper (1Cor. 11)

Suggestion for personal study: Leaven symbolized in the New Testament

  • Matt. 16:12 – false doctrine in Judaism
  • Luke 13:21 – false doctrine in Christendom(?)
  • 1Cor. 5:6-8 – sin in the assembly

3) Feast of Firstfruits

Looks forward to: Resurrection; Christ our Victor, Leader
Related passages: 1 Corinthians 15:23; John 12:24

Old Testament significance:

  • Time observed: At the time of the crucifixion, the day after the Sabbath (Sunday, 16th day of 1st month) during the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Lev. 23:15; According to tradition, it was held the Sunday after Passover (3)
  • The people brought the first of their produce to the Lord in thanksgiving

New Testament significance:

  • Time: Christ rose on the Feast of Firstfruits.
  • Christ is the Firstborn from among the dead, the token of a future harvest (Colossians 1:18; John 12:24).

Suggestion for personal study: Trace the idea of seed / sowing / reaping with Christ and the gospel message going forth and people being saved

4) Feast of Pentecost (or Weeks)

Looks forward to: Residence of the Holy Spirit in believers; Christ Ascended & Glorified at the right hand of God (Acts 2:33)
Related passages: Acts 2

Old Testament significance:

  • Time observed: 3rd month – 50 days after the Passover Sabbath or 7 weeks after Feast of Firstfruits (Lev. 23:16);
  • Celebration of wheat harvest
  • Also believed to be the day when God gave the law, and thus the beginning of the nation of Israel. (Exodus 19:1, 5-6)
    • Exodus 32:28,  3000 were destroyed

New Testament significance:

  • Time: On the day of Pentecost, the Holy Spirit came to indwell believers in Christ
  • This marks the beginning of the church, the body of Christ, the “harvest” of souls that is the “fruit” of Christ’s death and resurrection (1 Cor. 12:13)
    • Acts 2:41,  3000 were saved
    • Two leavened loaves offered: Jew and Gentile united in Christ – beginning of the church, though sin is still present

Suggestion for personal study: Temples in Scripture

  • The “universal” Church: the Body of Christ (Ephesians 5), a holy temple (Ephesians 2), the baptism of the Spirit (one-time event) (Acts 2, 1Cor 12);
  • The local church: “miniature” body of Christ (1Cor 12), a temple of the Spirit (1Cor 3);
  • The body of the believer: an earthly tent (2Cor 5), a temple of the Holy Spirit (1Cor 6)

Interval with no feasts : Present period

Time: There was a long period of about 4 months when there were no feasts celebrated. This reminds us of the present time, the Day of Grace (the Church age, when Israel is scattered, Romans 11:25).

Suggestion for personal study: The “Day of Grace”

  • Ends with rapture of the church and judgment for mankind
  • Picture: Methuselah (has the longest recorded age; note the meaning of his name)

Feasts 5-7 : Events yet future

5) Feast of Trumpets

Looks forward to: Rapture of the church & Regathering of Israel; Christ Returning

Related passages: 1 Thes. 4; Isaiah 27:12-13

Old Testament significance:

  • Time observed: 1st day of 7th month / beginning of civil year
  • Trumpet: used for call to assemble together or to journey on (Num 10:2)

New Testament significance:

  • Time: Unknown time in the future; a new beginning
  • The “trumpet shall sound,” the dead will be raised, and Israel will be regathered together as a nation

6) Day of Atonement

Looks forward to: Repentence and Restoration of Israel; Christ Delivering
Related passages: Zech 12:10, 13:1

Old Testament significance:

  • Time observed: 10th day of 7th month (mirrors time of the choosing of the Passover lamb)
  • Israel’s annual cleansing from sin; Day of judgment, penitence and forgiveness

New Testament significance:

  • Time: Time yet future, after the rapture of the church
  • Israel will recognize what they as a nation did to their Messiah, and will nationally repent and acknowledge Him, and find forgiveness. Christ will deliver Israel from their enemies.

7) Feast of Tabernacles

Looks forward to: Reign of Christ : Christ Reigning

Related passages:  

  • Matt 17:4 – Peter proposed three booths;
  • Matt 21:8-9; according to Lev 23:40 & other Jewish writings, it was common to signify joy with palm branches. Christ may have rode over them or they might have hung their garments on booths by the side of the road to make a show (John Gill)
  • Zech 14:16 – Millenial keeping of this feast;

Old Testament significance:

  • Time observed: 15th day of 7th month (mirrors time of Passover / Unleavened Bread)
  • Israel lived in tents / booths to remember God’s faithfulness to them in the wilderness before He brought them into the promised land (Lev. 23:40-43)

New Testament significance:

  • Time: After Christ returns, He will reign on earth for 1000 years in a period called the Millenium. It will be a time of peace and joy. Israel will celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles (Zech. 14:16).


Works cited/referenced:
(1) http://www.simpletoremember.com/articles/a/jewish-time/
(2) Feasts of Jehovah by John Ritchie, Kregel Publications
(3) International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passover#cite_note-8
(5) http://www.pray4zion.org/ShavoutorPentecost4thFeastoftheLord.html